Citing Resources

MLA Citation Information for Duluth Denfeld High School

 

This page is published for students at Duluth Denfeld High School. Students from other schools should check with their teachers before using this page for citation information. Because citation information for electronic sources changes frequently as new sources are developed, it is difficult to state the most current and correct format. 
This is a version as best known on December 5, 2012.
For more information, visit the MLA website at: http://www.mla.org  or the Purdue University Online Writing Lab at: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/.
The MLA Handbook For Writers Of Research Papers, 7th edition is also available at the Denfeld Media Center.


“Remember to be consistent in your formatting throughout your work. Since sites and other resources on the Web sometimes disappear altogether, you should consider downloading or printing the material you use during your research, so that you can verify it if it is inaccessible later” (MLA Handbook 183).

 

 

 

Online Databases 

Provide the following information for periodicals from a database: 
author’s, editor’s, compiler’s, etc. name, if given 
title of article, poem, short story, or similar short work in quotation marks, followed by a description, if necessary, i.e. Photograph 
publication information for any print version of the source, including:
      - title of journal, newsletter, or periodical, italicized
     
- volume and issue if given
      - date of publication - do not abbreviate May, June, July 
•number range or total number of pages, paragraphs, or other sections, if they are numbered;  use n.pag. if no pagination given
•title of the database, italicized, i.e , MasterFILE Premier, Student Edition - K12, Proquest Newspapers, Points of View, etc.
•medium of publication consulted (Web)
date when the researcher accessed the source

URL in angle brackets if necessary or required by the instructor

The usual model to follow for periodicals from a database is:

Publication information from the print source as described above. Database used. Web. Date of access. 

Provide the following information for non-periodicals from a database:

author’s, editor’s, compiler’s, etc. name, if given  
title of article, poem, short story, or similar short work in quotation marks, followed by a             description, if necessary, i.e. Photograph 
title of the print version, italicized
name of the editor, compiler, or translator of the text, preceded by the appropriate abbreviation, such as Ed.
•place of publication, publisher, date of publication; use n.p. if no publisher or place of publication given; use n.d. if no date of publication given
•title of the database, italicized, i.e. , MasterFILE Premier, Discovering Collection, Student Resource Center - Gold, etc.)
•medium of publication consulted (Web)
date when the researcher accessed the source

URL in angle brackets if necessary or required by the instructor


The usual model to follow for non-periodicals from a database is:

Publication information from the print source as described above. Database used. Web. Date of access. 


Use the following abbreviations for information that is not given :

n.p.                  no place of publication

n.p.                  no publisher

n.d.                  no date of publication

n. pag.             no pagination given

EBSCO Databases 

Models from EBSCOHost:  Periodicals

Academic Search Premier:

Coxe, Donald. “Vicious Sport.” Maclean’s 20 Sept. 2004: 34+. Academic Search Premier. Web. 21 Nov. 2009.

(Scholarly journals may require additional publication information, i.e. volume number and issue number, and noted in a different manner.)

Yankelovich, Daniel. “The Tipping Points.” Foreign Affairs 85.3 (May/June, 2006): 115-125. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 Sept. 2009.

Alt HealthWatch:

King, Dale. “Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy.” International Journal of Childbirth Education 21.2 (June 2006): 25-26. Alt Healthwatch. Web. 1 Oct 2009.

Business Source Premier:

Brown, Lester. “Could Food Shortages Bring Down Civilization?” Scientific American 300.5 (May 2009): 50-57.  Business Source Premier. Web. 29 Sept. 2009.

EBSCO MegaFILE:

Grace, Dominick. “The Future King: Camelot 3000.” Journal of Popular Culture 41.1 (Feb. 2008): 21-36. EBSCO MegaFILE.  Web. 17 Apr. 2009.

Health Source – Consumer Edition:

“Alcohol Before Birth: New Studies.” Harvard Mental Health Letter 23.7(Jan. 2007): 7. Health Source – Consumer Edition. Web. 1 Oct. 2009.

MAS Ultra – School Edition:

Robinson, Bethany. “Forgotten Pioneer Pilot.” Aviation History 20.4 (Mar. 2010): 4-5. MAS Ultra – School Edition. Web. 22 Mar. 2010.

MasterFILE  Premier:

Boyd, John Percy. “The Affirmative Action Athlete Dilemma.” Black Scholar 33.3/4 (Fall/Winter 2003): 26+. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 29 Sept. 2008.

Points of View Reference Center: Academic Journal

(Scholarly journals may require additional publication information, i.e. volume number and issue number, and noted in a different manner.)

Gorman, Siobhan.  “What’s Next For Enemy Combatants?”  National Journal 26.27 (Fall 2004): 2107. Points of View Reference Center. Web. 19 Sept. 2009.

Points of View Reference Center: Magazine

Halloran, Liz. “Rules For an Unruly New War.”  U.S. News & World Report 11 Nov. 2006: 32. Points of View Reference Center. Web. 19 Sept. 2009.

Points of View Reference Center: Newspaper

Finn, Peter. "Administration Won’t Seek New Detention System."  Washington Post 24 Sept. 2009: n.pag. Points of View Reference Center. Web. 1 Oct. 2009.

Science Reference Center:

“Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders.” Pediatrics 106.2 (Aug. 2000): 358. Science Reference Center. Web. 1 Oct. 2009.

Student Research Center:

This database combines several EBSCO databases and the citation for each source will indicate the other databases, not Student Research Center.

Models from EBSCOHost:  Non-Periodical Work (Book) Previously Published In Print

Business Source Premier:

Blois, Keith, and Sally Dibb. “Market Segmentation.” Oxford Textbook of Marketing. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Business Source Premier. Web. 17 Apr. 2009.

EBSCO MegaFILE:

Koerner, Brendan I. “Arthur, Arthur!” Mysteries of History. New York: U.S. News & World Report, 2004. EBSCO MegaFILE. Web. 17 Apr. 2009.

MAS Ultra – School Edition:

“Antarctic Exploration.” World Almanac & Book of Facts. 2009. MAS Ultra – Student Edition. Web. 21 Mar. 2010.

MasterFILE Premier:

“Arthurian Legend.” Columbia Encyclopedia. n.d. MasterFILE Premier. Web.12  Apr. 2009.

Models from EBSCOHost:  Article Originally Published By A Database (use for Points of View overview, point, and counter-point articles)

Cite as an article found in a volume 1 journal. [Recommended by Minitex, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities]

Points of View Reference Center:

Aliprandini, Michael. "Enemy Combatants: An Overview.” (2007). Points of View Reference Center.  Web. 1 Oct. 2009.

Jacobs, W. E.  and Chuck Goodwin. “Point: ‘Enemy Combatant’ Is a Legitimate Concept in the Global War On Terror.” (2007). Points of View Reference Center.  Web. 1 Nov. 2009.

Phillips, Rachel, and Andrew Walter. “Counterpoint: ‘Enemy Combatant’ Is an Illegitimate Exercise of Uncontrolled Power.” (2007). Points of View Reference Center.  Web. 1 Nov. 2009.

Models from EBSCOHost:  Article Originally Published By A Database

Cite as an article found in a volume 1 journal. [Recommended by Minitex, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities]

Cesarone, Bernard.  “Video Games: Research, Ratings, Recommendations. “ ERIC Digest (1998). ERIC. Web. 6 Nov. 2009.

Models from EBSCOHost:  Mulitmedia

In general, list components for a web publication and indicate the type of file (publication medium), i.e. audio, chart, diagram, graph, illustration, map, photograph, podcast, video, etc.

 

“Court Rules Against U.S. on Guantanamo Detainee.”  Audio.  All Things Considered. National Public Radio. 23 June 2008. Points of View Reference Center.  Web. 1 Oct. 2009.

“U.S. Citizen, Terror Suspect Indicted.” Photograph. Academic Search Premier.  Web. 17 Sept. 2009.

“Unrest In Cuba Brings U.S. Warships to Havana – 1933.” Video.  EBSCO MegaFILE.  Web. 1 Oct. 2009.

Models from Gale:  Periodicals

Expanded Academic ASAP

“Mortgage Crisis May Cause Employees To Tap 401(k) Plans.” Managing Benefits Plans 8.1 (Jan. 2008): 1+. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 15 Sept. 2008.

Gale Databases

Gale Student Resources in Context

Gillespie, Nick. "Also Sprach Elvis." Reason May 2010: 68. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 10 Dec. 2010.

General Science Collection:

Golombek, Matthew P., et al. “Landing the Mars Exploration Rovers.” Geotimes 48.5 (May 2008): 18+. General Science Collection. Web. 23 Sept. 2008.

Student Edition: Magazine

Kaplow, Larry. “There’s No Place Like -- Iraq.” Newsweek 3 Dec. 2007: 38. Student Edition. Web. 2 Jan. 2009.

Student Edition: Newspaper

“U.S. Death Toll.”  USA Today 14 Dec. 2007: 12A. Student Edition. Web. 2 Jan. 2009.

Models from Gale: Non-Periodical Work Previously Published In Print

Discovering Collection:

McCarthy, Paul. “Criticism of John Steinbeck.” John Steinbeck. New York: F. Unger, 1980. Discovering Collection. Web. 6 Nov. 2009.

Gale Student Resources In Context:

“Buying and Selling Mortgages.” Gale Encyclopedia of Everyday Law. Vol. 2. Ed. Jeffrey Wilson. Detroit: Gale Group, 2006. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 19 Nov. 2010.

Junior Reference Collection:

“Gary Paulsen.” Junior Reference Collection. Web. 6 Jan. 2009.

Models from Gale: Non-Periodical Work Previously Published Online

Baetzhold, Howard G. "Samuel Langhorne Clemens." DISCovering Authors. Online ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Discovering Collection. Web. 18 Mar. 2010.

"Oil Spills." Global Issues in Context Online Collection. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Global Issues In Context. Web. 17 May 2010.

"Themes and Construction: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn." EXPLORING Novels. Online ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Discovering Collection. Web. 18 Mar. 2010.

Models from Gale: Multimedia

In general, list components for a web publication and indicate the type of file (publication medium), i.e. audio, chart, diagram, graph, illustration, map, photograph, podcast, video, etc.

"Containment Chamber Will Hopefully Control Oil Spill." Photograph. Global Issues In Context. Web. 17 May 2010.

“Earth’s Antarctic Ice Sheet.” Photograph. Discovering Collection.  Web. 17 Feb. 2010.

“Extremophile Hunt Begins.”  Podcast.  Science@Nasa Headline News. 7 Feb. 2008. Student Edition.  Web. 1 Mar. 2010.

 “NASA Flies Over Antarctica to Measure Icemelt.” Video. Expanded Academic ASAP.  Web. 1 Mar. 2010.

“New Research Sheds Light On Antarctic Ice Melting.”  Audio. Weekend All Things Considered. 28 Feb. 2010. Student Edition.  Web. 1 Mar. 2010.

Proquest Databases

Models from ProQuest:

Tsubata, Kate. "Online Courses Offer Flexibility." Washington Times 1 Mar. 2009: M.18. ProQuest Newspapers.  Web. 24 Mar. 2009.

"If an edition is named on the masthead, add a comma after the date and specify the edition (e.g., nat'l ed., late ed.) (Gibaldi 185).

 

Rothstein, Edward. "Hate Crimes." New York Times 8 Nov. 2005, late ed. (East Coast): A.16. ProQuest Newspapers. Web. 21 Jan. 2009.

"If the city of publication is not included in the name of a locally published newspaper, add the city in square brackets, not underlined, after the name: Star-Ledger [Newark]" (Gibaldi 185).

Herbert, Robert F. "How About A Katrina Every Two Weeks?" Advocate [Baton Rouge] 8 Nov. 2005: B.6. ProQuest Newspapers.  Web. 21 Nov. 2009.

Britannica Databases

Model from Britannica Encyclopedia (online encyclopedia):

Pollard, John Richard. “Greek Mythology.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopedia  Britannica, 2012.  Web. 20 Jan. 2012.

Model from Britannica Encyclopedia (online dictionary and thesaurus):

 “Mythology." Merriam-Webster Dictionary & Thesaurus.  Encyclopedia Britannica, 2012. Web. 17 Jan. 2012.

Models from PowerMediaPlus:

Online image:

Scene from Greek Mythology.” Illustration.  PowerMediaPlus. 2010. Web. 6 Jan. 2010.

Online video:

Mythology and Its Impact on Greek Culture.”  Video.  PowerMediaPlus.  2010. Web. 27 Jan. 2010.

Model from MCIS:

 “Hamline University: Academics." Minnesota Career Information System.  2010. Web. 17 Mar. 2010.


DATABASES FROM THE UMD LIBRARY (College Comp students):

Good, Victor. “Crisis on the Campus.” Color Lines Magazine 6.1 (Mar. 2003): 4+. Contemporary Women’s Issues. Web.  21 Nov. 2008.

Scott, Christopher Thomas. “Splitting the Difference.” Science & Spirit 18.1 (Mar.- Apr. 2007): n.pag. Academic OneFile.  Web. 28 Sept. 2009.

DATABASES FROM THE DULUTH PUBLIC LIBRARY:


Models from NewsBank:

Goerdt, Janna. "College Students Spend Spring Break Cleaning Up Damage From Hurricane Katrina." Duluth News Tribune 17 Apr. 2006: 1D.  Newsbank: America's Newspapers. Web. 12 Dec. 2008.

Weyer, Jake. "Turned Around." Duluth News Tribune 10 Sept. 2005: 1A+.  Newsbank: America's Newspapers. Web. 12 Oct. 2008.

Model from Gale Biography In Context:

Cindrich, Sharon Miller. “Gary Paulsen’s Love Affair with Writing.” The Writer June 2004: 22. Gale Biography In Context.  Web. 02 Feb. 2008.

Model from NoveList:

Lewis, Leon. “Gary Paulsen.” NoveList.  2007. Web. 24 Jan. 2008.

Model from Health & Wellness Resource Center:

Ford-Martin, Paula, and Teresa G. Odle. “Depressive Disorders.”  The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ed. Jacqueline L. Longe. Detroit: Gale, n.d. Health & Wellness Resource Center. Web. 2 Jan. 2008.

 

ONLINE SOURCES

WORLD WIDE WEB (not in a database)

Provide the following information:
•author’s name, if given 
•title of work in quotation marks if part of a larger work; or italicized if the work is independent
•title of the overall website italicized

•publisher or sponsoring institution/organization, if given; if not given use n.p.
•date of electronic publication or last revision, if available; use n.d. if no date is given

•medium of publication (Web) 
•date when the researcher accessed the site 
•URL in angle brackets, if necessary or required by instructor


“Inclusion of URLs has proved to have limited value…for they often change…and can be so long and complex that typing them into a browser is cumbersome and prone to…errors. You should include a URL as supplementary information only when the reader probably cannot locate the source without it or when your instructor requires it” (MLA Handbook 182).  If you include a URL, enclose in angle brackets and end with a period.

 

Models for citing a page within a website:

“Belgium Foils al-Qaeda Jailbreak.” BBC News. British Broadcasting System, 1 Dec. 2008. Web. 21 Dec. 2008.

“Judge To Hear Government’s Arguments in CIA Tapes Case.” CNN Politics. Cable News Network, 21 Dec. 2007. Web. 22 Dec. 2007.

"Life and Death in the White House." The American Presidency, A Glorious Burden. Smithsonian National Museum of American History, 15 Nov. 2007. Web. 3 Dec. 2008 <http://americanhistory.si.edu/presidency/timeline/timeline.html>. 

Models for citing an entire website:
 

CNN.com. Cable News Network, 2008. Web.15 Nov. 2008 <www.cnn.com>.

Welcome To Project Vote Smart.  Project Vote Smart, 2010. Web.  2 Nov. 2010.


MULTIMEDIA

In general, list components for a web publication and indicate the type of file (publication medium), i.e. audio, chart, diagram, graph, illustration, map, photograph, podcast, video, etc. (Purdue)

 

 Provide the following information:

•author name, if given

•title of work, in quotation marks

•publication medium

•title of the website, italicized

•publisher or sponsoring institution/organization, if given; if not given use n.p.
•date of electronic publication or last revision, if available; use n.d. if no date is given 

•medium of publication (Web) 

•date when the researcher accessed the site

•URL in angle brackets, if necessary or required by instructor

 

Models:

 

“Antarctica’s Glaciers.” Photograph. Bing Images. Microsoft, 2010. Web. 19 Oct. 2010.

“Eiffel Tower at Night”. Photograph. Earth in Pictures, 2010. Web. 22 Apr. 2010

<http://www.earthinpictures.com/world/france/paris/eiffel_tower_at_night.html>.

"Eiffel Tower, Quai Branly, Paris, France." Map. Google Maps. Google, 2010. Web. 22 Apr. 2010.

“Handsaw.” Illustration. Bing Images. Microsoft, 2010. Web. 19 Oct. 2010.

Hill, Aaron. "Interview With Aaron Hill, Baltimore, Maryland." Audio.  September 11, 2001, Documentary Project.  Library of Congress, 27 Apr. 2008. Web. 30 Apr. 2008 <http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/>.

“The Hubble Turns 20.” Podcast. Talk of the Nation. National Public Radio, 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2010 <http://www.npr.org/templates/player/mediaPlayer.html?action=
1&t=1&islist=false&id=126221136&m=126221128>.

“Iceland.”  Map. National Geographic, 2010. Web. 26 Apr. 2010 <http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/travel/countries/iceland-map/>.

“Grift, Kiss and Flee.” Audio.  freeplaymusic, n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2009.

MrSwansonite. “Lester River/Lester Park and 60th Street Bridge in Duluth on the Afternoon of June 20.” Video. YouTube. YouTube, 20 June 2012. Web. 2 Oct. 2012.

“Secret Garden.” Illustration. Designer Scraps, 2010. Web. 26 Apr. 2010 <designerscraps.com/images/large/FC_SecretGarden>.

 

ARTICLE FROM AN ONLINE NEWSPAPER (Found online, but NOT in a database)

Provide the following information: 
•author’s name, if given
•title of article in quotation marks
•title of the newspaper, italicized
•date of publication of the article, if available; use n.d. if no date is given
•medium of publication (Web) 
•date when the researcher accessed the site 
•URL in angle brackets, if necessary or required by instructor


Model:

Buckley, Cara. "Refugees Risk Coming Home to an Unready Iraq." The New York Times, 20 Dec. 2007. Web.  22 Dec. 2007. 

ARTICLE FROM AN ONLINE MAGAZINE (Found online, but NOT in a database)

Provide the following information:

•author’s name, if available
•title of article in quotation marks
•title of the magazine, italicized
•date of publication of the article, if available; use n.d. if no date is given
•medium of publication (Web) 
•date when the researcher accessed the site 
•URL in angle brackets, if necessary or required by instructor

 

Model:

 

Douthat, Ross. “The Truth About Harvard.” Atlantic Online, Mar. 2005. Web. 10 Apr. 2008.

 

ARTICLE FROM AN ONLINE-ONLY ACADEMIC JOURNAL (Found online, but NOT in a database)

(Scholarly journals may require additional publication information, i.e. volume number and issue number, and noted in a different manner.)

 

Mandell, Laura, and Michael Gamer. “On Romanticism, the Canon, and the Web.”  Romanticism On the Net 10 (May 1998): n. pag. Web. 6 Nov. 2009.

 

ARTICLE FROM AN ONLINE ACADEMIC JOURNAL THAT ALSO APPEARS IN PRINT (Found online, but NOT in a database)

 

Altekruse, S. F, M.L. Cohen and D. L. Swerdlow. “Emerging Foodborne Diseases.” Emerging Infectious Diseases 3.3 (July-Sept 1997): 285-293. Web. 2 Oct. 2012.

 

SOCIAL MEDIA

E-MAIL

Provide the following information:
•writer's name 
•title of message taken from the subject line in quotation marks 
•description of the document that includes the recipient 
•date of message

•publication medium 

 

Model:  
Smith, Jon.  “Re: Quotation From Professor.” E-mail to Daniel C. Brown. 10 Apr. 2008. E-mail.

 

 
TWEET

[Recommendation by Purdue University Online Writing Lab.]

 

Provide the following information:

•user's name, followed by Twitter user name in parentheses with period outside parentheses
•tweet in its entirety in quotations 
•date and time of posting

•publication medium 

 

Model:

Brokaw, Tom (tombrokaw). “SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign.” 22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 a.m. Tweet.

 

 

ONLINE POSTING

Provide the following information:
•writer's name 
•title of posting taken from the subject line, in quotation marks followed by Online posting 
•the name of the forum in italics with version, if applicable

•name of publisher or sponsor

•posting date

•medium of publication (Web) 

•date when the researcher accessed the message
•URL of the list's Internet site, in angle brackets (if necessary and/or required by instructor)      or, if no internet site is known, the e-mail address of the list’s moderator

 

Model:  

Samuelson, Anna. "Literary Analysis of Lord of the Flies." Online posting. AP Writing Lab. City University of New York, 16 Nov. 2009. Web. 17 Nov. 2009 <http:lists.cuny.eud/archives/lit.html>.

 

DIGITAL FILES FROM AN iPHONE:

 

"Thalamus." 3D Brain. Dolan DNA Learning Center, n.d.  iPhone Application file.

 

[Recommendation by Minitex, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities and Purdue University Online Writing Lab.]

 

 

 

ONLINE PAINTING, LITHOGRAPH, SCULPTURE, OR SIMILAR WORK (not in a database)

Provide the following information:

•artist’s name, if given

•title of artwork, italicized

•date of artwork; use n.d. if no date is given

•name of any institution or organization housing the artwork and city, if available; if in a private collection give name of collection (Collection of…) or Private collection.

•title of the website, italicized
•date of electronic publication or last revision, if available; use n.d. if no date is given 

•medium of publication (Web) 

•date when the researcher accessed the site

•URL in angle brackets, if necessary or required by instructor

 

Model:

Turner, Joseph Mallord William. Venice, From The Porch Of Madonna della Salute. 1835. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.   Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2008. Web. 3 Feb. 2008.


ONLINE BOOK (from a database):

Provide the following information: 
•author’s name, if available, or editor, translator, etc. with appropriate abbreviation
•title of the book, italicized
•publication information for the original print version, if given in the source: city, publisher, copyright 
•title of webpage, italicized

•date of electronic publication or last revision, if available; use n.d. if no date is given
•medium of publication (Web) 
•date when the researcher accessed the site 
•URL in angle brackets, if necessary or required by instructor

 

Model:

McCoy, Ralph E. Freedom of the Press: An Annotated Bibliography, 1978-1992. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1993. NetLibrary. 2008.  Web. 27 Nov. 2008 <http://www.netlibrary.com/Reader/>.

ONLINE BOOK (not from a database):

Bartlett, John. Familiar Quotations. 10th ed. Boston: Little, Brown, 1919. Bartleby.com: Great Books Online, 2008. Web. 5 Feb. 2008.

 
PART OF AN ONLINE BOOK:

Provide the following information: 

•author’s name, if available, or editor, translator, etc. with appropriate abbreviation

•the part of the book, in quotation marks 
•title of the book, italicized
•publication information for the original print version: city, publisher, copyright 
•title of webpage, italicized

•date of electronic publication or last revision, if available; use n.d. if no date is given
•medium of publication (Web) 
•date when the researcher accessed the site 
•URL in angle brackets, if necessary or required by instructor

 

 

Model:

Keats, John. “Ode to a Grecian Urn.” Poetic Works. London: Oxford University, 1884. Bartleby.com: Great Books Online, 2008. Web. 27 Jan. 2008.

 

 

 

 

The following are citations for digital sources that are not found online.

 

DIGITAL FILES NOT ON THE INTERNET NOR PUBLISHED

 

Digital files can exist independently from the Web or a published disc. Examples are a PDF file stored on your computer, a document created by a peer using a word processor, a scanned image you received as an e-mail attachment and a sound recording formatted for playing on a digital audio player. (MLA Handbook 210)

Determine the type of work to cite (e.g. article, image, sound recording) and cite appropriately. End the entry with the name of the digital format (e.g. PDF, JPEG file, Microsoft Word file, MP3). If the work does not follow traditional parameters for citation, give the author’s name, the name of the work, the date of creation, and the medium of publication. Use Digital file when the medium cannot be determined. (Purdue)

 

Models:

“Directions For Using Gaggle.” 2010. Microsoft Word file.

 

Boehland, Lila. “Gregory Greyhound.” 2010. JPEG file.

 

 

 

PUBLICATION ON CD-ROM

Provide the following information:
•name of author, if given 
•title of publication, italicized
•edition, release, or version, if relevant 
•place of publication 
•publisher
•publication date

•publication medium  

 

Models:

Body Works, a 3D Journey Through the Human Anatomy.  Vers. 6.0. Cambridge, MA: Learning Company, 1999. CD-ROM.

If you are citing only a part of a work like an article, essay, etc. enclose the title in quotation marks (Gibaldi 226).

Model:

"Castle." The Encarta Encyclopedia. 4th ed. Redmond, WA:  Microsoft Corporation, 2004. CD-ROM. 

 

 

FILM

Provide the following information:
•title of film, italicized
•director 
•pertinent information, such as names of the writer, performers and producer 
•distributor
•publication date

•publication medium  

 

Model:

Schindler's List. Dir. Steven Spielberg. Perf. Liam Neeson, Ben Kingsley, Ralph Fiennes, Caroline Goodall, Jonathan Sagalle and Embeth Davidtz. Universal City Studios, 1993. Film.

 

FILM VIDEOCASSETTE OR DVD

Provide the following information:
•title of film, italicized
•director
•pertinent information, such as names of the writer, performers and producer 
•original release date, if relevant 
•distributor 
•publication date

•publication medium  

 

Model: 

Schindler's List. Dir. Steven Spielberg. Perf. Liam Neeson, Ben Kingsley, Ralph Fiennes, Caroline Goodall, Jonathan Sagalle,  and Embeth Davidtz. 1993. MCA Home Video, 1998. Videocassette.

Super Size Me. New York: Kathburr Pictures, 2004. DVD.

 

SOUND RECORDING 

Provide the following information:

•composer, conductor, or performer (depends on the desired emphasis) 
•title of recording, italicized
•artist or artists, if relevant 
•manufacturer 
•year of issue

•publication medium  

 

 

Models: 
Dylan, Bob. Bob Dylan’s Greatest Hits. CBS, 1967. CD.


Cite a spoken-word recording as you would a musical recording.

 

 

TELEVISION OR RADIO PROGRAM

Provide the following information: 
•title of episode or segment, if applicable, in quotation marks

•title of program, italicized 
•narrator, if applicable

•title of network, if any 
•call letters and city of the local station, if any

•broadcast date

•medium of reception (e.g. Radio, Television) 

 

Models: 

"Don't Ask. Don't Tell." Sixty Minutes. Narr. Ed Bradley. CBS. KDHL, Duluth, MN., 12 Dec. 1999. Television.

 If you are citing a transcript of the program, list its medium of publication and add the description Transcript at the end of the entry (MLA Handbook 194).

"Don't Ask. Don't Tell." Sixty Minutes. Narr. Ed Bradley. CBS. KDHL, Duluth, MN.,12 Dec. 1999. Transcript.

 

 

Print Sources: Books

 

BOOK BY A SINGLE AUTHOR 

Provide the following information:
•author 
•title of book, italicized
•city of publication 
•publisher 
•date of publication

•publication medium (Print) 

 

Model:  
Denenberg, Barry. Voices From Vietnam. New York: Scholastic, 1995. Print.

 

 

BOOK WITH A CORPORATE AUTHOR

Provide the following information:
•name of the group listed on the title page
•title of book, italicized
•city of publication 
•publisher 
•date of publication

•publication medium (Print) 

 

Model:

American Heart Association. The American Heart Association Cookbook. New York:  Ballantine Books, 1980. Print.

 

BOOK WITH TWO AUTHORS

Provide the following information:
•authors' names in the same order in which they appear on the title page (not necessarily alphabetical) 
•title of book, italicized
•city of publication 
•publisher 
•date of publication

•publication medium (Print) 

 

Model:

Dadd, Debra L., and Herbert A. Simon. The Nontoxic Home and Office.  New York: Putnam's Sons, 1992. Print.

BOOK WITH THREE AUTHORS

Provide the following information:
•authors' names in the same order in which they appear on the title page (not necessarily alphabetical) 
•title of book, italicized
•city of publication 
•publisher 
•date of publication

•publication medium (Print) 

 

Model:

Lindahl, Carl, John McNamara, and John Lindow. Medieval Folklore. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2000. Print.

 

BOOK WITH MORE THAN THREE AUTHORS
Provide the following information:
•authors' names in the same order in which they appear on the title page (not necessarily alphabetical) 
•title of book, italicized
•city of publication 
•publisher 
•date of publication 
•publication medium (Print) 

 

Models:

 

McPerson, William, Stephen Lehman, Craig Likness, and Marcia Pankake. Why Are You Poisoning Your Family? New York: Little, Brown & Company, 1991. Print.

"If there are more than three authors, you may name only the first and add et al. ("and others"), or you may give all names in full in the order in which they appear on the title page" (Gibaldi 154).

McPerson, William, et al. Why Are You Poisoning Your Family? New York: Little, Brown & Company, 1991. Print.

 

BOOK WITH THE AUTHOR'S NAME MISSING

Provide the following information:
•title of book, italicized
•city of publication 
•publisher 
•date of publication

•publication medium (Print) 

 

Model:

The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet and Related Readings. Evanston: McDougal Littell, 1997. Print.

 

POEM OR SHORT STORY

Provide the following information:
•author 
•title of poem or short story in quotation marks

• title of book italicized

•editor or compiler name preceded by Ed. or Comp.
•city of publication 
•publisher 
•date of publication

•page number(s)

•publication medium (Print) 

 

Models:  

Clare, John. “First Love. Good Poems. Comp. Garrison Keillor. New York: Viking 2002. 95. Print.

 

Williams-Garcia, Rita. “Crazy as a Daisy.” Stay True: Short Stories for Strong Girls. Ed. Marilyn Singer. New York, Scholastic, 1998. 87-97. Print.

If the specific literary work is part of an author's own collection (all of the works have the same author), then there will be no editor to reference (Purdue):

Yolen, Jane. “The Sleep of Trees.” Sister Emily’s Lightship and other Stories. New York: Tom Doherty, 2000.79-92. Print.

Johnson, Jim. “The Names Loggers Give to the Trees Often Differ.”  A Field Guide to Blueberries. St. Cloud, MN: North Star Press, 1992. Print.

 

 

BOOK FROM A MULTIVOLUME WORK

"If you are using only one volume of a multivolume work, state the volume number in the bibliographic entry and give publication information for that volume alone" (Gibaldi 168). 

 Provide the following information:
 •author, if given
 •title of book, italicized
 •volume number 
 •city of publication 
 •publisher 
 •date of publication
 

 •publication medium (Print) 

 

 

Model:

McDonnell, Janet. America in the 20th Century, 1970-1979. Vol. 8. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 1995. Print.

 

BOOKS FROM A MULTI-VOLUME WORK
"If you are using two or more volumes of a multi-volume work, cite the total number of volumes in the work. This information comes after the title - or after any editor's name or identification of edition - and before the publication information" (Gibaldi 167). 

Provide the following information:
 •author, if given
 •title of book, italicized
 •number of volumes 
 •city of publication 
 •publisher 
 •date of publication 

 •publication medium (Print) 

 

Model:

Twentieth-Century America, a Primary Source Collection From The Associated Press. 10 vols. Danbury: Grolier Educational Corporation, 1995. Print.

 

WORK IN AN ANTHOLOGY

Provide the following information:
 •author of chapter
 •title of chapter in quotation marks 
 •title of book, italicized
 •editor of book, if available 
 •city of publication 
 •publisher 
 •date of publication 
 •pages of chapter

 •publication medium (Print) 

 

 

Models:

Brindle, Reginald Smith. “The Search Outwards.” The New Music. Ed. James Galway. New York:  Oxford University Press, 1975. 133-45. Print.

Hattemer, Barbara. "Violence in the Media Causes Youth Violence.”Violence:  Opposing Viewpoints. Ed. Scott Barbour and Karin L. Swisher. San Diego, CA:  Greenhaven Press, Inc., 1996. 62-69. Print.

If the work is an excerpt, give the data from the earlier publication and then add Excerpt from (MLA 159).

 

Model:

Tennyson, Lord Alfred. “Morte d’Arthur.” Excerpt from Idylls of the King. Prentice Hall Literature: Timeless Voices, Timeless Themes. Ed. Diane Cappillo. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005. 1020-1029. Print.

 

BOOK WITH ONE EDITOR OR COMPILER
Provide the following information:
•editor followed by the abbreviation "ed." or "comp." in lower case 
•title of book, italicized
•city of publication 
•publisher 
•date of publication

•publication medium (Print) 

 

Model:

Rae, Noel, ed. Witnessing America: The Library of Congress Book of Firsthand Accounts of Life in America 1600-1900. New York: Penguin Books, 1996. Print.

 

BOOK WITH TWO OR MORE EDITORS OR COMPILERS
Provide the following information:
•editors followed by the abbreviation "eds." or "comps." in lower case 
•title of book, italicized

•city of publication 
•publisher 
•date of publication

•publication medium (Print) 

 

Model:

Ashby, Ruth, and Deborah Gore Ohrn, eds. Herstory: Women Who Changed the World. New York: Viking, 1995. Print.

 

BOOK WITH AN EDITION
(Use this format when citing a work that was prepared for publication by someone other than the author, usually in the case of a long-ago published work, but also if an author and editor is listed on the title page.)

Provide the following information:
•author 
•title of book, italicized
•date of original publication, if relevant 
•editor's name, preceded by the abbreviation Ed.

•city of publication
•publisher 
•date of publication

•publication medium (Print) 

 

Models:

Bartlett, John. Familiar Quotations. 1882. Ed. Emily Morison Beck. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1980. Print.

Use the following format for a work that has a specific edition listed on the title page:

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.  6th ed. New York: The Modern Language Association, 2003. Print.

Urdang, Laurence, Anna Ryle, and Tanya H. Lee, eds. -Ologies and -Isms. Rev. ed. Detroit, MI: 1986. Print.

Use the following format for a work that has an author and editor listed on the title page:

Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of King Richard the Second. Ed. Kenneth Muir. New York:  Penguin Books, 1988. Print.

 

BOOK WITH A TRANSLATOR

Provide the following information: 
•author 
•title of book, italicized 
•translator's name proceeded by Trans. 
•city of publication 
•publisher 
•date of publication 

•publication medium (Print) 

 

Model: 
Camus, Albert. The Plague. Trans. Stuart Gilbert. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1948. Print.

 

 

BIBLE
"If you use the King James Version, you do not need to include a works-cited entry. If you use any other version, treat it as you would a book in the works-cited list" (Lunsford 628).

 

 

GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT
Provide the following information:
•author, if identified; if not given, start with the name of the government followed by agency and any subdivision (use abbreviated names if the context is clear)
•title of document, italicized
•city of publication 
•publisher 
•date of publication

•publication medium (Print) 

 

Models:

New Hampshire. Dept. of Transportation. Right of Way Salinity Reports,   Hillsborough County, 1985. Concord: New Hampshire Dept. of Transportation, 1986. Print.

U. S. Bureau of the Census.  Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1870.  Washington: GPO, 1995. Print.

Models: 
“For congressional documents, cite the number, session, and house of Congress (using S for Senate and HR for House of Representatives), and the type (Report, Resolution, Document), in abbreviated form, and number of the material” (Lunsford 636).    

United States. Cong. House. Report of the Joint Subcommittee on Reconstruction. 38th  Cong., 1st sess. H. Rept. 30. 1985. Washington: GPO, 1985. Print.

To cite the Congressional Record (abbreviate Cong. Rec.) give only the date, page numbers, and medium of publication consulted (MLA Handbook 175).
Model: 

United States. Cong. House. Torture Victims Relief Reauthorization Act of 2009. 111th Congress. 1st sess. Cong. Rec. 16 Mar. 2009: 543-544. Print.

"To cite an online government publication, begin with the same facts given for printed government works...and conclude with information appropriate to the electronic source" (Gibaldi 220).

Model: 

United States. Cong. House. Torture Victims Relief Reauthorization Act of 2009. 111th Congress. 1st sess. Cong. Rec. 16 Mar. 2009. Thomas, Library of Congress, 2010. Web.  4 Oct. 2010.

 

DICTIONARY ENTRY
Provide the following information:
•title of entry 
•title of dictionary, italicized
•edition, if available 
•date of publication

•publication medium (Print) 

 

 

Model: 
"Ammonia." Webster's Third International Dictionary. 10th ed. 1987. Print.

 

 

ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE
Provide the following information: 
•author, or contributor, if given
•title of article in quotation marks 
•title of encyclopedia, italicized
•edition, if available 
•date of publication

•publication medium (Print) 

 

"If the encyclopedia article is signed, give the author first...if it is unsigned, give the title first. When citing familiar reference books, especially those that frequently appear in new edition, do not give full publication data. For such works, list only the edition (if stated) and the year of publication" (Gibaldi 161). 

 

Models: 
Lawson, Wendy. "Antarctica." The World Book Encyclopedia. 1999. Print.

 

"When citing specialized reference books…give full publication information” (MLA Handbook 160).

“Tiger.” The Grolier Illustrated Encyclopedia of Animals. Danbury, CT: Grolier Educational Corporation, 1999. Print.

 

Print: Periodical

PERIODICAL (MAGAZINE) WITH AN AUTHOR
Provide the following information:
•author 
•title of article in quotation marks 
•title of periodical, italicized
•date of issue 
•page numbers

•publication medium (Print) 

 

 

Model:  
Smoler, Fredric. “Paradise Lost.” American Heritage Mar. 1998: 58-67. Print.

 

 

PERIODICAL (MAGAZINE) WITH NO AUTHOR
Provide the following information:
•title of article in quotation marks
•title of periodical, italicized
•date of issue
•page numbers

•publication medium (Print) 

 

Model:  
“Airfares: Are You Paying Too Much?” Consumer Reports Jan. 1998: 8. Print.

 

 Print: Newspaper


ARTICLE IN A NEWSPAPER
Provide the following information:
•author
•title of article in quotation marks 
•title of newspaper, italicized 
•date of issue 
•page numbers 

•publication medium (Print) 

 

Model:

Shaffer, David. “Long-Awaited Tobacco Trial To Start Tuesday.” Duluth News-Tribune 18 Jan. 1998: 6B. Print.

 

EDITORIAL IN A NEWSPAPER OR MAGAZINE
Provide the following information:
•author, if it is signed
•title of article in quotation marks 
•descriptive label (Editorial. Neither underlined nor enclosed in quotation marks.)
•title of newspaper or magazine, italicized
•date of issue
•page number

•publication medium (Print) 

 

Model:

Pearson, Patricia. “Women Can Deserve Death Penalty, Just Like Men.”  Editorial.  Minneapolis Star Tribune 14 Jan. 1998: 13A. Print.


LECTURE, SPEECH, ADDRESS, READING, INTERVIEW

Provide the following information:
•speaker's name, if known
•title of the presentation, if known, in quotation marks 
•the meeting and the sponsoring organization, if applicable, in italics
•the location 
•date of presentation 
•appropriate descriptive label (Address, Lecture, Keynote speech, Reading), neither italicized               nor enclosed in quotation marks (MLA Handbook 203).

 

Models:

Jones, John. Duluth School Board Meeting. ISD #709. Duluth, MN. 5 Oct. 2008. Address.

Mitchell, Lynn. "Teens and Reading." Unlimited Possibilities Forum. ALA Convention. Washington, D.C. 10 Oct. 2005. Keynote speech.

 

 

PERSONAL INTERVIEW
Provide the following information:
•name of the person interviewed
•kind of interview, i.e. Personal interview, Telephone interview
•date of interview

 

Model: 
Hill, David. Personal interview. 27 Nov. 2009.

 

 

PUBLISHED INTERVIEW
Provide the following information:
•name of the person interviewed
•title of the program or recording (if part of a publication, use quotation marks; if published independently, italicize the title; if untitled, use the descriptive label   Interview with no underlining or quotation marks)
•interviewer’s name, if given

•appropriate citation information

•publication medium 

 

Models:

Blackman, Harry. Interview by Ted Koppel and Nina Totenberg. Nightline. ABC. KBJR, Duluth, MN. 5 Apr. 1998. Television.

Elving, Ron. Interview by Neal Conan. Talk of the Nation. Natl. Public Radio. KSJN, Minneapolis. 13 May 2009. Radio.

 

Schumer, Charles E. “Judicial Opinion.” Interview by Deborah Soloman. New York Times Magazine 31 Jul 2005: 13. ProQuest Newspapers.  Web. 11 Jan. 2008.

 

 

SUPPLEMENTAL CITATIONS

 

 

PAMPHLETS

Cite a pamphlet like a book.

 

SURVEY

(This citation is not authorized by MLA. This citation is only for East High School student use.)

 Provide the following information:  
•name of the person who conducted the survey 
•title of the survey in quotation marks 
•descriptive label
•name of institution sponsoring survey, if applicable 
•date of survey

•publication medium 

 

Models: 
Smith, Suzanne. "Substance Abuse." Survey. East High School. 3 Mar. 2011. Print.

 

Smith, Logan. “Marijuana Use At East.” Online survey. East High School. 10 Dec. 2010. Web.

 

 

For more information, visit the MLA website at: http://www.mla.org

 

 

 

Information for a Works Cited and/or Works Consulted Document

A "Works Consulted" document is an alphabetical list of sources that were consulted when the topic was researched.

 

A "Works Cited" document is an alphabetical list of sources that were used when the topic was researched and are all parenthetically cited within the document.

 

1.      Follow the MLA Works Cited format at: http://duluth.mn.schoolwebpages.com/education/components/docmgr/default.php?sectiondetailid=11283&sc_id=1199302075&PHPSESSID=33cb4d4858ea75aeb70d6398736c2487

2.      Begin the Works Cited page at the end of the document on a separate page.

3.      Number each page, continuing the page numbers of the paper. For example, if the text of your paper ends on page 10, the Works Cited will begin on page 11.

4.      Center Works Cited (use Works Consulted if works are included that are not parenthetically cited within the document) one inch from the top of the page.

5.      Double-space before beginning the first entry.

6.      In general, alphabetize entries by the author’s last name. If no author is given, then use the first key word in the title ignoring “A”, “An” or “The.”

7.      Do not number the entries.

8.      If you use more than one work of an author, do not repeat the author’s name. Instead, after using the name one time, alphabetize the rest of the entries by title. Use 3 hyphens in place of the author’s name after the first entry.

9.      Begin each entry at the left margin. If the entry is longer than one line, indent those lines one inch.

10.  Double-space all entries.

11.  Place a period at the end of each entry.

12.  When a source does not include publisher, date of publication or pagination, use the following abbreviations:

n.p.      no place of publication given
n.p.      no publisher given

n.d.      no date of publication given

n. pag.   no pagination given  

 

 

 

Sample Works Cited Page

 

Bartlett, John. Familiar Quotations. 1882. Ed. Emily Morison Beck.  Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1980. Print.

Coxe, Donald. “Vicious Sport.” Maclean’s 20 Sept. 2004: 34+. Academic Search Premier. Web. 21 Nov. 2009.

Denenberg, Barry. Voices From Vietnam. New York: Scholastic, 1995. Print.

Gorman, Siobhan.  “What’s Next For Enemy Combatants?”  National Journal 26.27 (Fall 2004): 2107. Points of View Reference Center. Web. 19 Sept. 2009.

Hill, David. Personal interview. 27 Nov. 2004. 

“Judge To Hear Government’s Arguments in CIA Tapes Case.” CNN Politics. Cable News Network. 21 Dec. 2007. Web. 22 Dec. 2007.

Kaplow, Larry. “There’s No Place Like -- Iraq.” Newsweek 3 Dec. 2007: 38. Student Edition. Web. 2 Jan. 2009.

Pollard, John Richard “Greek Mythology.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopedia  Britannica. 2009.  Web. 20 Sept. 2009.

Rothstein, Edward. "Hate Crimes." New York Times 8 Nov. 2005, late ed. (East Coast): A.16. ProQuest Newspapers. Web. 21 Jan. 2009.

Welcome To Project Vote Smart.  Project Vote Smart. 2009. Web.  2 Nov. 2008.

 

 

 

MLA Format for Parenthetical Citations:


MLA style uses parenthetical citations in the text following each quotation, paraphrase, summary, or reference to a source. Each citation, made up of the author's last name or key words from the title, and the page reference, refers to an entry in the Works Cited list at the end of the essay. The name or key words allow the reader to locate the entry with complete publication information for the resource. The page reference allows readers to find the exact material in the source itself. Place the citation, in parentheses, at the end of a sentence or at a logical break in its syntax. Place any punctuation marks - periods, commas, semicolons, etc. -- after the closing parentheses.
“References in the text must clearly point to specific sources in the list of works cited…and [should] identify the location of the borrowed information as specifically as possible” (Gibaldi 239). “If you quote more than once from the same page within a single paragraph – and no quotation from another source intervenes – you may give a single parenthetical reference after the last quotation” (Gibaldi 242).

 

Below are the various ways of citing sources within a text:

 

Author page format
After a quotation, paraphrase, or summary of an author's work, add the author's last name and the page number of the source in parentheses. Note that you do not need a comma to separate the author's name and the page number. The period for the sentence comes after the parentheses.
Model:

     In places de Beauvoir “sees Marxists as believing in subjectivity as much as existentialists do" (Whitmarsh 63).

 

Author named in text
The shorter your parenthetical references are, the easier your essay will be to read. Therefore, if you name the author in your text, then include only a page number in parentheses.

Model:

     As Mueller and Rodgers have shown, television holds the potential for distorting and manipulating consumers as free-willed decision makers (370).

 

Author of more than one reference
If you cite more than one work by an author in your Works Cited list, signal which work you mean by adding a comma and a short form of the title after the author’s name.

Model:

     Through Grendel, “a pointless, ridiculous monster, crouched in the shadows, stinking of dead men, murdered children, and martyred cows” (Gardner, Grendel 2), readers are presented with their own silliness.

 

Title without identified author
Use a short version of titles with no identified author. Use quotation marks or italics as you would in the Works Cited list.

Model:

     “Hype” by one analysis, is “an artificially engendered atmosphere of hysteria” (Today’s Marketplace 51).

 

Bible
"Identify biblical quotations by chapter and verse (John 3:16). Spell out the names of all books mentioned in your text...use an abbreviation for books whose names are longer than five letters (Gen. for Genesis, Matt. For Matthew)" (Lunsford 628).

Classic verse plays and poems

"In citing classic verse plays, omit page numbers altogether and cite by division (act, scene, canto…) and line, with periods separating the various numbers…In general, use Arabic numerals rather than roman numerals for division and page numbers (Gibaldi 253). Use abbreviated titles – for example, Ham. (for Shakespeare’s Hamlet, Much for Much Ado About Nothing, etc.)
Model:
      In her quarrel with Benedick,  Beatrice says, “I wonder if you will be talking, Segnor Benedick. No one marks you” (Much 1.1.111-112).
     

 

Two works referred to in one sentence
When you refer to two titles, you must make two citations in the order in which they are referred. This example is of two texts by the same author. The full titles are Tess of the D’Urbervilles and The Mayor of Casterbridge.

Model:

     Thomas Hardy reminds readers in his prefaces that “a novel is an impression, not an argument” and that a novel should be read as “a study of man’s deeds and character” (Tess xxii, Mayor 1).

 

Citing several authors who have written on the same topic
When you  refer to three different writers who treat the same topic, simply list the authors and page numbers separating each by a semi-colon.

Model:

    Several sources have addressed this aspect of gang warfare as a fight for survival, not just turf (Rollins 34; Templass 561-65; Robertson 98-134).

 

Citing a source by more than one author
If you cite a work with two or three authors, list each author’s last name in the order used on the title page.

Model:

     “Opinion leaders” influence other people in an organization because they are respected, not because they hold high positions (Cortner, Mahier, and Nicholson 175).

 

Citing a work with four authors or more
If you cite a work with four authors or more, use only the last name of the first author followed by et al.

Model:

     As the Schools Council study showed in the 1960’s, children will learn to write if they are allowed to choose their own subjects (Britton et al. 37-42).

Quotations for Indirect Sources
When you are using a quotation from an indirect source, i.e. not the original source, put the abbreviation qtd. in, then the author's name and page number.
Model:
     Physician Michael Klaper has stated that there is "absolutely no nutrient, no protein, no vitamin, no mineral that can't be obtained from plant-based foods" (qtd. in Seamens 7).

 

Long quotations
If you use a long quotation (five lines or more), type it double-spaced as a block indented ten spaces from the left margin, and do not use quotation marks. Put two spaces after the last punctuation mark, and add the parenthetical citation. The block quotation is indented on the left only and is double-spaced. The period goes at the end of the quotation.

Model:

In similar fashion, the beginning of Being and Time also raises this problem: The question of the meaning of Being must be formulated. If it is a fundamental question, it must be made transparent and in an appropriate way. We must therefore explain briefly what belongs to any question whatsoever, so that from this the question of Being can be made visible as a very special one with its own distinctive character.  (Heidigger 24)

Electronic Resources

In-text citations for electronic resources follow the same parenthetical citation format as a print source. The only real difference is that electronic texts usually do not have page numbers, although sometimes paragraphs are numbered. If so, the paragraph number should appear in your citation following the abbreviation par (for paragraph).

Model:

Employees "blogging" on the job may find themselves without one (Tapper and Taylor).

 

 

 

 

Works Cited (for this Webpage):

 

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th ed.  New York: The Modern Language Association, 2003. Print.

Hacker, Diana. A Pocket Style Manual. 2nd edition. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997. Print

 

Lunsford, Andrea and Robert Connors, eds. The St. Martin's Handbook. 3rd ed. New York:  St. Martin's Press. 1995. Print.

MLA Handbook For Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: The Modern Language Association, 2009. Print.

Purdue Online Writing Lab. Purdue University, 2010. Web. 1 Oct. 2012  <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/>.

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